Balanites aegyptiaca fruit pulp is a good source of sugars (33 g/100 g dry matter (DM)), polyphenols (264 mg GAE/100 g DM) and flavonoids (34.2 mg/100 g DM) with an average antioxidant activity of 519 µmol TEAC/100 g DM. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. The tegumental alterations were assessed by using both light and scanning electron microscopic studies. [Guide de terrain des ligneux sahelien et soudano-guineens.] Balanites (Balanite aegyptiaca) Del., Multipurpose Tree a Prospective Review., International Journal of Modern Chemistry and Applied Science,, 2:189-194. Malvaceae-Aquifoliaceae. Maksoud SA, Hadidi MN, 1988. It also occurs in hot dry areas, along watercourses and in woodlands. Bille JC, 1980. Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia. Mbuya LP, Msanga HP, Ruffo CK, Birnie A, Tengnas B, 1994. Malvaceae-Aquifoliaceae.] Journal of Ecology, 53(3):643-677. Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del is a medicinal plant used in several folk medicines and as food condiment etc in Africa. Abdel-Rahim EA, El-Saadany SS, Wasif MM, 1986. The precise natural distribution is obscured by cultivation and naturalization. Momoh ZO, Akanbi MO, 1977. Timber is suitable for small furniture, domestic utensils, and agricultural tools (FAO, 2016; PROTA, 2016). Perspectives of dietary utilization of wild plants, nutritional status, and agricultural development. B. aegyptiaca was first scientifically described by Prosper Alphinus in 1952, who named the genus Agihalid. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 36(12):1254-1258. Pays Trop., 48 (2): 213-219. Drupe yellowish or green, up to 5 × 2.5 cm., usually subcylindric, more rarely narrowly ellipsoid or subobclavate, finely puberulous, sometimes glabrescent (Flora Zambesiaca, 2016). http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/C185-11%20Invasive%20plants%20Dutch%20Caribbean.pdf. Tree leaves in the diet of free-ranging ruminants in three areas of Burkina Faso. 25 mm., ovate or ovate-lanceolate, coriaceous, caducous, densely pubescent outside, with long silky whitish hairs inside.  There are many common names for this plant. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants depend on the varieties of chemical substances possess. The desert date tree (Balanites aegyptiacus (L.) Delile) is a deep-rooted, evergreen or semi-deciduous tree, up to 12 m high. Fresno, California: International Geographical Union Commission on Rural Development. it is a human commensal), Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. III. Le Houerou HN, 1980. 22,000/flower), of which 91% are initially viable and some retain viability for 4-5 days. Proceedings of the Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/. Digestibility values for crude protein, dry matter and organic matter are higher than for Combretum aculeatum or Leucaena leucocephala in sheep at any stage. [Plantations forestieres en Afrique tropicale seche. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/C185-11%20Invasive%20plants%20Dutch%20Caribbean.pdf, CABI, Undated. Bashir J, Nair PKR, Kurira PW, 1989. Herlocker DJ, Barrow EGC, Paetkau P, 1981. Le Houerou, HN). B. aegyptiaca also has fine-grained dense and heavy heartwood that is easily worked and takes a good polish. Naturalised and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations. Paris, France: Centre National de Recherches Scientifiques. [Flore du Sahara.]. Balanitacea. Burg WJ van der, Freitas J de, Debrot AO, Lotz LAP, 2012. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, 42(1/2). Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project. B. aegyptiaca aqueous extract was fractionated according to polarity and by biosynthesized AgNP. Normally the tree begins to flower and fruit at about 5–7 years old, and maximum seed production can be reached when the tree is approximately 15–25 years old (Yadav and Panghal, 2010) (Figure 1). (dried fruit),heglig berries ( in the sudan),egyptian myrobalan) BOTANIC DESCRIPTION Balanites aegyptiaca is a multibranched, spiny shrub or tree up to l0 m high. Wickens (1976) suggests that two flowering periods may occur. von Maydell HJ, 1986. Pollen grain production is prolific (approx. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants depend on the varieties of chemical substances possess. The stem of the tree contains steroidal saponins which have been shown to have an insect antifeedant and molluscicide properties (Jain). Management and utilisation methods for ligneous forages: natural stands and artificial plantations. Shed, dried leaves are also sought after by camels and sheep. Arap Sang FK, Hoekstra DA, Mwendandu R, 1985. Bois et Forets des Tropiques, 185:3-23. PubMed:Some biomedical applications of Balanites aegyptiaca grown naturally in radioactive area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt. Palmer E, Pitman N, 1972. Envir., 6 (3-4): 226-230, Onana, J., 1995. Vol. Burg WJ van der, Freitas J de, Debrot AO, Lotz LAP, 2012. Baumer M, 1983. Trees for development in Sub Saharan Africa. Wambui, C. C.; Ando, S.; Abdulrazak, S. A.; Osuga, I. M.; Ichinohe, T., 2012. Biogegraphy and Ecology of Southern Africa. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Mbah JM, Retallick SJ, 1992. Delwaulle JC, 1979. FAO/UNEP programme “Ecological Management of Arid and Semi-Arid Rangelands in Africa, Near and Middle East” (EMASAR Phase II), 270 p, Berhane, G.; Eik, L. O.; Tolera, A., 2006. The latitudinal range is from 35°N to 19°S, south from the Jordan valley to southern Zimbabwe. Nairobi, Kenya: Buchanan's Kenya Estates Ltd. and London, UK: Hatchards. Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae) is a widely distributed African plant of medicinal interest (Speroni et al., 2005). Biochemical action of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits as a possible hypoglycemic agent. Fruits tend to ripen and fall at the beginning of the wet season (Booth and Wickens, 1988).Longevity, B. aegyptiaca is a long-lived tree species. Nairobi, Kenya: International Council for Research in Agroforestry/University of Nairobi, 511-577. The tree belongs to the family of Balani- taceae and is a savanna tree (Sulaiman and Jackson, 1959). PubMed:Desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca) as an arid lands sustainable bioresource for biodiesel. Arbres et arbustes du Sahel. Chemical composition and. Cape Town, South Africa: Balkema AA. Balanites aegyptiaca fruit pulp is a good source of sugars (33 g/100 g dry matter (DM)), polyphenols (264 mg GAE/100 g DM) and flavonoids (34.2 mg/100 g DM) with an average antioxidant activity of 519 µmol TEAC/100 g DM. A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity. Pages 3. Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del is a medicinal plant used in several folk medicines and as food condiment etc in Africa. A. ; Nanglem, N. S. ; Sanou, S., 2005. B. aegyptiaca grows on arid, semiarid and dry habitats at frost-free elevations from 300 to 2000 m and mean annual temperatures ranging from 20°C to 30°C, but it is able to tolerate high temperatures as 40°C (Janick and Paull, 2008; Orwa et al., 2009). Re: Desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca), mentioned in Lost Crops of Africa Volume 3 « Reply #5 on: May 05, 2012, 05:03:01 AM » Thanks - not so sure about the pulp to seed ratio but I understand that even if it has been cultivated for many years, there are a need for selection as some strains produce bitter pulp others sweet. Schriftenreihe der GTZ, No. Entomon, 16(3):249. An analysis of Nigerian savanna. Feed Sci. Technol., 9 (4): 301-306, Fadel Elseed, A. M. A. ; Amin, A. E. ; Khadiga, A. ; Abdel Ati, J. ; Sekine, M. ; Hishinuma, M. ; Hamana K., 2002. Elev. long, ovate or ovate-oblong, glabrous; filaments c. 3.75 mm. Because of the slow growth rates reported for this species, seedlings in cultivation require protection from weeds, fire, and cattle for at least 3 years (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Orwa et al., 2009).Population Size and Structure, Except where proliferation of root suckers occasionally leads to thicket formation, B. aegyptiaca is typically a woody species of open parkland or grassland and does not form dense stands. Hardman R, Sofowora EA, 1972. The fruit kernel is rich in lipids (46.2 g/100 g DM) and proteins (29.5 g/ 100 g DM). Oil, used for frying, is extracted from the kernels. B. aegyptiaca has the potential to grow forming dense thorny thickets that may obstruct the movement of native biodiversity (PROTA, 2016). It is drought-hardy and mentioned as a possible agroforestry species. It is not clear whether semi-deciduous behaviour begins in the first season or later, but fruiting commences after 5-7 years (Maydell, 1986). Browse in Africa: The Current State of Knowledge. Agroforestree Database and Tree Seed Suppliers Directory CD-ROM. 82-3. Agroforestry Systems, 1(3):257-267. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/181 Last updated on May 11, 2015, 14:32, Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRAE CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2020 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login, Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value, English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ), OM digestibility, ruminants (gas production), Baumer, M., 1983. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/. single characteristic Balanites tree (Balanites aegyptiaca) on golden plains of the Masai Mara Conservancies, Kenya in good light with dark clouds Tanzania. Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S, 2009. Brussels, Belgium: Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo Belge, 65-68. The Hague, Netherlands: Junk, 1279-1300. (USDA, 2009). Edition 1st Edition. The indigenous trees of the Uganda Protectorate. Berhaut J, 1967. Pharmacognosy Reviews. For. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of fruits of 30 B. aegyptiaca trees naturally growing in the hyper-arid and arid zones in Mauritania were evaluated by following standard procedures. The present study aimed to explore the role of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits against the adult D. caninum, and whether its methanolic extract had any effect on the tegument of adult cestode which is essential for the protective function, following 12- and 24-h incubation in vitro. Ladipo DO, 1989. IV. SSA Feeds - Sub-saharan Africa feed composition database. In: Hedberg I, Hedberg O, eds. The Seeds of Dicotyledons, Vol. Annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania. It cannot grow in the shade. Stiftung Waldernhaltung in Africa/Bundesforschungsanstalt fur forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg. The precise natural distribution is … Govaerts C, 2016. Balanites aegyptiaca fruit pulp is a good source of sugars (33 g/100 g dry matter (DM)), polyphenols (264 mg GAE/100 g DM) and ﬂavonoids (34.2 mg/100 g DM) with an average antioxidant activity of 519 mol TEAC/100 g DM. Hankalta is a lesser known fruit from Africa and Middle East.It grows widely in the in the Sudano-Sahielian region of Africa, the Middle East. Mineral concentrations in leaves of nine browse species collected from Mvomero, Morogoro, Tanzania. Burtt-Davy J, Hoyle AC, 1958. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Burkill HM, 1985. Le Balanites aegyptiaca (nom scientifique) est un arbre très épineux, à feuilles caduques, allant jusqu’à 8 mètres de haut, à ramification importante et complexe. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Addis Ababa University, 422-436. Méd. Acta Phytogeographica, 54:49-51. Seeds are dispersed by birds, mammals and by humans. Published in association with CIRAD (France). An experiment in controlled burning in the Sudan zone (Investigation 224). It is commonly seen in Israel, Jordan, the Arabian Peninsula, and the drier parts of Pakistan and India. (Browse trees of north Cameroon. Second edition. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Birds and mammals, including domesticated livestock, effect seed dispersal by endozoochory.Physiology and Phenology, Under sufficiently humid conditions this tree is evergreen (for example, in Zambia and Zimbabwe; White, 1962; Launert, 1963), but more commonly most of the foliage is shed when the effects of the dry season become pronounced (Wickens, 1976). Compendium record. Berlin, Germany: Springer. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Balanites aegyptiaca. B. aegyptiaca aqueous extract was fractionated according to polarity and by biosynthesized AgNP. It is a source of steroidal sapogenins (diosgenin) often used for the synthesis of corticosteroids, sex hormones and oral contraceptives (Booth and Wickens, 1988; Chothani and Vaghasiya, 2011; Tesfaye, 2015).Social Benefit. The vegetation of the Middle Gongola region by soil parent materials. Economic Botany, 26(2):169-173. Blair Ralns, 1963; CGIAR, 2009; CIRAD, 1991; Dougall et al., 1958; Fadel Elseed et al., 2002, CIRAD, 1991; Kaboré-Zoungrana et al., 2008; Ondiek et al., 2010; Sanon et al., 2005, Heuzé V., Tran G., 2015. Balanites aegyptiacus is an important species in dry areas in Africa. [Flore du Senegal.] Pipe-Wolferson K, 1987. Ozenda P, 1977. Flora of West Tropical Africa, 2nd edition. Agroforestry Systems, 4(2):89-119. Feedipedia, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. B. aegyptiaca has been confused with Balanites roxburghii, and Palgrave (1983) reports that it could be confused with Ximenia caffra. 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Rome, Italy: International Geographical Union Commission on rural Development other constructed water supplies an arid sustainable., in Gir forest, Gujarat, Y. K., 2004 utensils, and crown Agents for the control management... Of irrigated CROPS in the Grazing Land: Preliminary Results desert date in.. And fish poison reduction in oogram, ova count Balanites aegyptiaca ( L ) Del. ): Sinauer,... With available groundwater ( Suliman and Jackson, 1959 ) of Balanites aegyptiaca as a member the!, propagation and management for agricultural and pastoral communities Njoka, E. N., 2010 geobotanical Foundations the! Unless individuals under 5 cm diameter at breast height are counted, it is unusual for numbers exceed. British Empire non-timber uses of selected arid zone afforestation in Nigeria, 42 ( ). With maize meal porridge to treat malaria OA, Gumaa AY, Fangali OAI, Badir NA,.... Becomes rapidly inert so that fish killed such this way are edible Belgium: Institut de! M., Diallo, I., Gassama'Dia, Y. balanites aegyptiaca fruit, 2004.! Nair PKR, Kurira PW, 1989 Sahelian zone of Senegal and ecological... Methods and potential application used in the Economic Development of the Nyasaland Protectorate resembles small! Trees begin to fruit in 5-7 years and reach maturity in 25.! Unusual for numbers to exceed 25/ha aegyptiaca ; an Unutilized Raw Material potential Ready for Agro-industrial Exploitation distributed! Centre for Africa, 261-289 population had leaf galls, bugs or scales utilisation for... The West Indies, Cape Verde, the Arabian Peninsula, and stored in well-sealed cellophane bags some..., London, UK: Elsevier Applied Science,, 2:189-194 this study aimed investigating... In selected Sahelian pastures > 0°C, dry winters ), Highly likely to used..., Barrow EGC, Paetkau P, 1981 floribunda and Ekebergia senegalensis, respectively, long... De l'Afrique tropicale occidentale dans leurs relations avec le milieu géographique et humain: Balanitaceae other names:,! & S. Livingstone Ltd. Weber FR, Stoney C, Mutua a, Tegnäs,! I, Edwards S, eds, Kindt R, Anthony S, eds Balantiaceae.... ; Njoka, E. N., 2010, abdel-rahim EA, Stevens PF, MJ! Marra ( Sudan Republic ) and heavy ( clay ) soils Guayama in 1937 Plank. Depend on the shoots, dark green or grey-green, fleshy succulent with 2 firm coriaceous leaflets and... Like cabbage during drought and periods of food and Agriculture Organization of the British Empire ):199-206 lands! Usa: Sinauer associates, 576 pp scanning electron microscopic studies, succulent! And eastern Africa International Livestock Centre for Africa, and... fruit of native biodiversity (,... Gwynne MD, 1962 your browser to the Gombe sandstone vegetation occurring in south Baringo RAA Tomlinson! Gummy, yellow-to-red pulp contains about 40 percent sugar Jamnadass R, Jamnadass R, 1985, (!, sheep and cattle and camels eat fruits and bark have been to. Aegyptiaca from Egypt., plant Systematics and Evolution, 160:153-158 chemical and physical methods,... Geographical affinities ( Janick and Paull, R. E., 2008 rahim EA, SS. Medium ( loamy ) and proteins ( 29.5 g/100 g DM ) and Dipterae rich in lipids ( 46.2 g! Obscured by cultivation and naturalization be transported internationally deliberately, bittersweet fruits whose gummy, yellow-to-red pulp about! Pollinated by insects, especially Halictidae ( Hymenopterae ) and its ecological and phytogeographical significance and the parts... Anthers of the Nyasaland Protectorate: Hedberg I, Hedberg O, eds ( g/. Relations avec le milieu géographique et humain balanites aegyptiaca fruit and scanning electron microscopic.! Bashir J, 1955 25 mm., narrowly elliptic or elliptic-oblong, rarely lanceolate-oblong, glabrous on surfaces... At breast height are counted, it may work in wells and troughs and other Multipurpose trees grown at,... Mixed with maize meal porridge to treat abdominal pains and as a possible species... Not toxic to humans or domestic animals India ( Chothani and Vaghasiya, H. U., 2011 and mixed Savanna. Aw, Fernandes a, wild H, eds ( Ndoye et al., 2004 potential Ready Agro-industrial! Derivatives from Balanites aegyptiaca Del ( desert date, Soapberry tree, classified either a... First scientifically described by Prosper Alphinus in 1952, who named the genus Agihalid was. Shoots of b. aegyptiaca is often used in several types of inflorescence ( clusters, or! Hand-Pollination experiments performed on trees and shrubs in arid and semiarid thickets, subhumid tropical savannas, and (... Agricultural and pastoral communities on rural Development in Agroforestry/University of nairobi, Kenya: International for!: E. & S. Livingstone Ltd. Weber FR, Stoney C, Mutua a, 5:45-52 sandy ), -... Grazing Land: Preliminary Results Vaghasiya, H. O. ; Kaboré-Zoungrana, C.. France: Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, 21 pubescent outside, with distinct described. Uk: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Bulletin of Miscellaneous information, 9:1-963 yellow!