Király O, Sleczka P, Pontes HM, Urbán R, Griffiths MD, Demetrovics Z. Validation of the ten-item internet gaming disorder test (IGDT-10) and evaluation of the nine DSM-5 internet gaming disorder criteria. Gaming disorder is defined in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) as a pattern of gaming behavior (“digital-gaming” or “video-gaming”) characterized by impaired control over gaming, increasing priority given to gaming over other activities to the extent that gaming takes precedence over other interests and daily activities, and continuation or escalation of … doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.002, 9. Bowditch L, Chapman J, Naweed A. doi: 10.1080/01449290903353054, 57. Király O, Griffiths MD, Demetrovics Z. Internet gaming disorder and the DSM-5: conceptualization, debates, and controversies. Although the DSM-5 labels the problem “Internet gaming disorder,” it states that the disorder also involves non-Internet or offline games (3). A new psychological test has been launched to determine whether participants suffer from the World Health Organisation’s newly recognised “gaming disorder.” The online test, which can be completed in around 20 minutes, allows participants to compare their game playing activity with the rest of the community. The Gaming Disorder Test [GDT (2)] was adopted to measure gaming disorder based on the ICD-11 framework. Psychol Assess. Cur Addict Rep. (2015) 2:254–62. The short form of the Social Anxiety Interaction Scale [SIAS-6 (37)] was chosen to measure social anxiety symptoms. As a guide for researchers, our study identifies two major issues to consider when deciding which measure to use to assess gaming disorder. The World Health Organization (WHO) is preparing to release its latest version of the International Classification of Diseases, the ICD-11 in May, 2019. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206767, 55. Psychol Assess. To be diagnosed with gaming disorder, a patient must have at least five of the listed symptoms. Each item was measured in a 4-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (rarely or none of the time) to 4 (most or all of the time). The IGDT-10 shows robust psychometric properties and appears suitable for conducting cross-cultural and gender comparisons across seven languages. Hence, researchers requiring methods with a short protocol (e.g., telephone survey) will find the GDT to be a brief, valid assessment tool that can be easily administered to a heterogeneous sample. All parameters are standardized. Wu TY, Lin CY, Årestedt K, Griffiths MD, Broström A, Pakpour AH. Disorder Test (IGD-20 Test; Pontes et al. Cole JC, Rabin AS, Smith TL, Kaufman AS. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. Taken together, these results indicate the incremental validity of the GDT over the IGDS9-SF in explaining both weekly general and weekly online gaming time. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that after controlling for the IGDS9-SF, the GDT accounted for a significant proportion of the additional variance in this variable. Comput Hum Behav. doi: 10.1016/j.abrep.2015.04.001, 18. Addict Behav. Hence, the shorter GDT, at just four items, may be a more suitable choice to meet these purposes. Figure 2. 2014), the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale–Short Form (IGDS9-SF;PontesandGriffiths 2015b),andtheTen-ItemInternetGamingDisorderTest(IGDT- 10; Király et al. GD, gaming disorder (assessed by IGDS9-SF); SA, social anxiety symptoms; DEP, depressive symptoms. Received: 29 June 2020; Accepted: 27 November 2020; Published: 17 December 2020. The CES-D had acceptable reliability in our study (Cronbach's α = 0.88). Participants were asked to rate all items on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (never) to 5 (very often). doi: 10.1089/cyber.2016.0286, 34. However, it remains unknown whether the GDT, which is based on the ICD-11 framework, is psychometrically similar to or different from the popular nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS9-SF) based on the DSM-5 framework. As the IGDS9-SF has consistently been shown to account for the variance in such mental health-related criterion measures as depressive and social anxiety symptoms [e.g., (32, 33)], as well as gaming time [e.g., (10, 34)], it is important to test whether the new GDT can explain the variance in these criterion measures beyond the contribution made by the existing IGDS9-SF. Psychometric assessment of the internet gaming disorder diagnostic criteria: an item response theory study. Jo YS, Bhang SY, Choi JS, Lee HK, Lee SY, Kweon Y-S. Clinical characteristics of diagnosis for internet gaming disorder: comparison of DSM-5 IGD and ICD-11 GD diagnosis. Multinational comparison of internet gaming disorder and psychosocial problems versus well-being: meta-analysis of 20 countries. Pontes HM, Griffiths MD. 2019) Instructions: The questions below are about your gaming activity during the past year (i.e., last 12 months). Given that gaming disorder is a global concern (1), further effort should be made to translate the new and promising GDT into various languages for psychometric validation. At the initial level, configural invariance analysis evaluates whether the number of factors and patterns of free factor loadings are equal across different demographic groups. 3. A recent review (59) maintained that gaming disorder may arise without the presence of withdrawal symptoms, and the current conceptualization of tolerance symptoms has also been criticized for its direct adaptation from substance addiction criteria without considering the nature of gaming activity (51). 49. The short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D 10 (38)] was used to evaluate depressive symptoms. The data collection process was conducted via an online survey hosted on Qualtrics. Struct Equ Model. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.16.4.360, 39. (2011) 51:492–6. Festl R, Scharkow M, Quandt T. Problematic computer game use among adolescents, younger and older adults. First, the study evaluated the utility of both the GDT and IGDS9-SF for use with non-clinical samples. Burduli E, Barbosa-Leiker C, Fleming S, Hollins Martin CJ, Martin CR. Figure 1. Wang H-Y, Sigerson L, Cheng C. Digital nativity and information technology addiction: Age cohort versus individual difference approaches. PLoS One. Specifically, the configural invariance was tested by constraining the unidimensional factor structure to be invariant, but freely estimating the factor loadings and item intercepts. Compared to the IGDS9-SF whose length is twice longer, the GDT provides an equally good or even better explanation of the data, as indicated by its incremental validity over the IGDS9-SF in accounting for variances in gaming time, as well as its scalar invariance property concerning employment status that is not found for the IGDS9-SF. The participants provided online informed consent to participate in this study. However, the optimal measurement approaches for GD are currently unclear. Cogn Emot. Montag C, Schivinski B, Sariyska R, Kannen C, Demetrovics Z, Pontes HM. Comput Hum Behav. Front Psychiatry. Leung H, Pakpour AH, Strong C, Lin Y-C, Tsai M-C, Griffiths MD, et al. (2002) 9:233–55. (2010) 25:236–41. Research … (2014) 17:19–25. All statistical analyses were performed with R-Studio version 3.4.1 (RStudio Team, Boston, MA) and SPSS version 23 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Dreier M, Wölfling K, Duven E, Giralt S, Beutel M, Müller K. Free-to-play: about addicted whales, at risk dolphins and healthy minnows. Psychol Assess. (2018) 13:e0206767. 2019 Jun 14;10:405. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00405. González-Blanch C, Medrano LA, Muñoz-Navarro R, Ruíz-Rodríguez P, Moriana JA, Limonero JT, et al. CC contributed to the editing and revision of the manuscript. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. Such variations may be attributable to the different interpretations of these items regarding in-game investment. Comput Hum Behav. The Gaming Disorder Test [GDT (2)] was developed based on this framework, with the measure validated in China and the United Kingdom. Laconi S, Pirès S, Chabrol H. Internet gaming disorder, motives, game genres and psychopathology. Behav Inform Technol. Hence, our findings imply that this particular IGDS9-SF item may not be sufficiently sensitive to differentiate between individuals reporting numerous gaming disorder symptoms and those reporting few such symptoms. Measuring DSM-5 internet gaming disorder: Development and validation of a short psychometric scale. Eligible participants were adults (i.e., aged over 18) who responded “yes” to the screening question “Have you played any video game in the past 12 months?” To ensure good data quality, the participants were screened based on their reputation on the survey platform (i.e., >95% approval rating). This unidimensional, non-clinical measure is comprised of 10 items that examined the frequency and duration of various symptoms of depression. Lemmens JS, Valkenburg PM, Gentile DA. J Psychiatr Res. (44); CIGDS by Sigerson et al. The comprehensive scope of the IGDS9-SF makes it potentially more appropriate for use in studies examining multidimensional gaming-related constructs that evaluate various aspects of gaming (e.g., gaming motivation, player identification). (2012) 48:1–36. (2007) 21:26–55. Based on these findings, we advise researchers to consider the factors of brevity and comprehensiveness when choosing an appropriate measure of gaming disorder. eCollection 2019. (2019) 90:1–9. This scale adopts a unidimensional measurement approach to evaluate social apprehension based on six items. Kaptsis D, King DL, Delfabbro PH, Gradisar M. Withdrawal symptoms in internet gaming disorder: a systematic review. J Stat Softw. doi: 10.1080/02646838.2017.1310374, 22. Why do you play? Gaming disorder was listed as a condition for further study in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in 2013, and measures of the disorder have mushroomed in the years since. Means that gaming is given priority over any other activity, work or school, or any other interest. Int J Ment Health Addict. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2010.0345, 64. Addict Behav. For instance, one item included in the IGDS9-SF has stronger emphasis on the interpersonal difficulties of players compared to that of the GDT. 4. We conducted a psychometric investigation of the GDT developed based on the ICD-11 framework (2) and the IGDS9-SF developed based on the DSM-5 framework (7). Hence, although we aimed to evaluate and compare the psychometric properties of the GDT (derived from the ICD-11 framework) with the IGDS9-SF (derived from the DSM-5 framework), researchers should be cautious in generalizing the present findings to other assessment tools developed under the DSM-5 framework. (2016) 19:674–9. Griffiths M, King D, Demetrovics Z. DSM-5 internet gaming disorder needs a unified approach to assessment. Addiction. Pearcy BT, Roberts LD, McEvoy PM. Thus, it is important to consider how monetary and non-monetary (e.g., time) investment may differentially influence distinct groups of players. To evaluate measurement invariance, we performed multigroup CFA (16) to assess their measurement and scaling properties across three sample characteristics: gender, age, and employment status. As shown in Table 3, after controlling for the existing IGDS9-SF measure, the newer GDT measure was unable to explain a significant proportion of the additional variance for social anxiety and depressive symptoms. Confirmatory factor analytical model testing the criterion validity of nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form. In contrast, recent findings indicate that games encouraging high in-game expenditure tend to jeopardize adolescents, who are not financially independent, and may thus have to deceive family members or friends to cover that expenditure (57). (2011) 17:185–9. doi: 10.20882/adicciones.1277, 7. (2014) 10:20. doi: 10.1186/1744-9081-10-20, 62. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2015.0605, 11. Choi S-W, Kim H, Kim G-Y, Jeon Y, Park S, Lee J-Y, et al.  |  (2020) 103:106191. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.106191, 69. (2018) 88:153–68. (2018) 13:e0193356. Hence, these findings provide robust support for the structural validity of the GDT. GD, gaming disorder (assessed by GDT); SA, social anxiety symptoms; DEP, depressive symptoms. (2015) 61:330–42. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12136, Keywords: internet gaming disorder, online gaming, gaming addiction, behavioral addiction, scale validation, measurement invariance, psychometric comparison, psychometric properties, Citation: Wang H-Y and Cheng C (2020) Psychometric Evaluation and Comparison of Two Gaming Disorder Measures Derived From the DSM-5 and ICD-11 Frameworks. For instance, both Item 3 (tolerance) and Item 7 (deception) were evaluated based on the “amount of time” spent on gaming. (2017) 75:652–9. In addition, the unidimensionality of such measure has also been supported by most of the fit indices; but Item 8 of this measure— “Do you play in order to temporarily escape or relieve a negative mood (e.g., helplessness, guilt, anxiety)?—had a particularly weak factor loading. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale Short Form (IGDS9-SF) is a nine question questionnaire that mirrors the nine diagnostic symptoms for IGD. For employment status, five options were provided: (1) student, (2) full-time worker, (3) part-time worker, (4) unemployed, and (5) not in paid work. Psychometric validation of the Turkish nine-item internet gaming disorder scale-short form (IGDS9-SF). Background and aims: The Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) is a short screening instrument developed to assess Internet gaming disorder (IGD) … Second, our participants were recruited primarily from North America and Europe, and hence the results may not be generalizable to other cultural regions, including East Asia and South America. (2018) 78:133–41. (2016) 43:58–66. Scoring just a hair less than Evan, Steven is also considered more likely to exhibit a Gaming Disorder. doi: 10.1556/JBA.3.2014.4.6, 61. Gaming disorder is officially being recognized as a mental health condition by the WHO.  |  Struct Equ Model. Compared to the GDT, the IGDS9-SF offers a more comprehensive examination of gaming disorder based on the nine criteria. Table 3. Revelle W. psych: Procedures for Psychological, Psychometric, and Personality Research: Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. Epub 2015 Nov 26. ^The methods for testing various types of measurement invariance were commonly adopted in previous studies [e.g., (20–23)]. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. Finally, the GDT displayed incremental validity over the IGDS9-SF in explaining gaming time, but not social anxiety and depressive symptoms. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.03.008, 58. USA.gov. Descriptive statistics and factor loadings derived from confirmatory factor analytical model for the two gaming disorder measures. (2015) 110:842–51. (2017) 70:153–63. 樋口進『ネット依存・ゲーム依存がよくわかる本』のレビュー。今世界中で問題となっているゲーム依存・スマホ依存について、WHOが「ゲーム障害(IGD)」を病気として認定した目的とともに、ゲーマーの視点からこの問題をどうするべきか考察します。 (2016) 19:288–93. Pontes HM, Schivinski B, Sindermann C, Li M, Becker B, Zhou M, et al. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. For the characteristic of employment status, only configural invariance was supported by the model fit indices, and non-invariance was identified in the metric invariance level, as indicated by the increase in RMSEA (i.e., 0.016) and significant chi-square differences. Wang H-Y, Cheng C. New perspectives on the prevalence and associated factors of gaming disorder in Hong Kong community adults: A generational approach. In addition, results indicated both language and gender invariance on the level of scalar invariance. Similar to weekly general gaming time, both the GDT (r = 0.29) and IGDS9-SF (r = 0.22) were positively associated with weekly online gaming time. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.09.023, 52. Sigerson L, Cheng C. Scales for measuring user engagement with social network sites: a systematic review of psychometric properties. Following the conventional practice of incremental validity analysis, only the constructs identified as significantly associated with the two gaming disorder measures were included in the multiple regression analysis (43). (2004) 16:360–72. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.06.012, 35. World Health Organization. This comprehensive systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate all available English-language GD tools and their corresponding evidence. For the IGDS9-SF, the unidimensional model structure had an acceptable fit to the data: χ2 = 71.223, CFI = 0.952, TLI = 0.954, RMSEA = 0.064, and SRMR = 0.060. Comput Hum Behav. Motivational components of tolerance in internet gaming disorder. The IGDS9-SF has been widely adopted and validated in a range of cultural regions such as Australia, Hong Kong, Portugal, and Turkey [e.g., (8–11)]. Specifically, Item 2 of the GDT reads: “I have continued gaming despite the occurrence of negative consequences,” whereas the corresponding item in the IGDS9-SF (Item 6) reads: “Have you continued your gaming activity despite knowing it was causing problems between you and other people?” Hence, recent experiences of interpersonal problems are necessary for the item to be endorsed for the IGDS9-SF, but the item of GDT is endorsed for respondents who have recent experiences of problems in any life domains (e.g., work/studies, health, and interpersonal relations). J Clin Med. 2019 Jul 10;10:454. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00454. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. Both models included three latent variables: gaming disorder, social anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. (2015) 27:567. doi: 10.1037/pas0000062, 67. For instance, long gaming time has been identified as a concern for employed players, as it can interfere with their work performance and even result in disciplinary action [e.g., (55, 56)]. Confirmatory factor analytical model testing the criterion validity of Gaming Disorder Test. doi: 10.18637/jss.v048.i02, 41. As GDT is a newer measure of gaming disorder, sensitivity, and specificity tests should be conducted among clinical samples to obtain a clinically useful cut-off for screening at-risk clients. The figures inside the boxes represent the item numbers of the respective measures. Gaming Disorder. Impact Factor 2.849 | CiteScore 3.2More on impact ›, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science (CAS), China. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.04.030, 48. The DSM-5 framework comprises nine criteria: 1) preoccupation with gaming; 2) withdrawal symptoms when gaming is not accessible; 3) increasing amounts of time spent on gaming; 4) unsuccessful attempts to control gaming; 5) loss of interest in other hobbies or activities; 6) continued excessive gaming despite knowledge of the undesirable consequences; 7) deceiving others regarding the amount of gaming; 8) use of gaming to escape from unpleasant moods; and 9) losing significant interpersonal relationships due to gaming. The results were consistent with the correlation analysis. (2014) 53:103–10. Sigerson L, Li AY-L, Cheung MW-L, Luk JW, Cheng C. Psychometric properties of the Chinese Internet Gaming Disorder Scale. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118, 42. Behav Brain Funct. Table 2. Im Schnitt verbrachten die Probanden zwölf Stunden pro Woche mit Videospielen. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Hoerger M. Participant dropout as a function of survey length in internet-mediated university studies: implications for study design and voluntary participation in psychological research. Gaming disorder is a pattern of gaming behaviour ('digital-gaming' or 'video-gaming') which: Causes an overwhelming urge to spend all the time gaming. (2013) 108:592–9. HHS アルコールや薬物への依存症はご存知の方も多いでしょう。依存症は、病気として国際的にも認識されています。実は、この依存症に「ゲーム」が加わることになりました。ゲームへの依存である「ゲーム障害」を、ネット依存との関係や問題点等についてまとめてました。 doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2015.11.006, 60. doi: 10.1080/02699930601038912, 44. The tendency for problematic gaming was measured with the Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10; Király et al., 2017) to provide a better sample description.  |  2017) have been extensively examined cross-culturally. At the final level, scalar invariance analysis holds the item intercepts on the latent variables to be equal across groups. Gaming Law Rev. Lim VK, Chen DJ. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.031, 21. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Validation of the Arabic Version of the Internet Gaming Disorder-20 Test. Addict Behav. Diagnostic and Classification Considerations Regarding Gaming Disorder: Neurocognitive and Neurobiological Features. 2017 Apr;20(4):268-272. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2016.0493. Take this video game addiction test to find out. The IGD-20 Test includes 20 items reflecting the nine criteria of IGD as in the DSM-5 [1] and incorporated the theoretical framework of the components model of addiction (i.e., salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, conflict and relapse) [20] . Neuropsychiatry. (2018) 22:52–4. doi: 10.1007/s11469-017-9786-3, 12. Such incremental validity concerning gaming time may reflect potential differences between the more concise ICD-11 criteria and more comprehensive DSM-5 criteria. Yee N. The demographics, motivations, and derived experiences of users of massively multi-user online graphical environments. Presence. As gaming disorder measures are often used in large-scale population surveys with heterogeneous community samples [e.g., (17–19)], measurement invariance is essential for detecting the influence of demographic characteristics in between-group comparisons. The Gaming Disorder Test (GDT) (Pontes et al. Each item was measured on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (never) to 5 (very often). For the GDT, the CFA model showed a good fit to the data, as indicated by all five model fit indices: χ2 = 5.646, CFI = 0.991, TLI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.017, and SRMR = 0.016. Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. All of the factor loadings were statistically significant; however, Item 8 (escape) had a factor loading below 0.50 (see the lower panel of Table 1). R package Version 2.0.9 (2020). doi: 10.1007/s11469-017-9806-3, 33. Development and validation of a Rasch-derived CES-D short form. Previous multinational comparisons have identified considerable differences in thinking and behavior among the inhabitants of diverse cultural regions (69), and the measurement invariance of cultural region should be established to allow more extensive cross-cultural comparisons of the prevalence of gaming disorder. Second, evidence of configural, metric, and scalar invariance was found for GDT concerning all three demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, age, and employment status), whereas for the IGDS9-SF, such evidence was found for gender and age alone, with the results only partially supporting metric invariance for employment status. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. NIH Both the GDT (r = 0.30) and IGDS9-SF (r = 0.25) had significant positive associations with weekly general gaming time. Psychol Assess. Comput Hum Behav. Measurement Invariance of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) between the United States of America, India and the United Kingdom. Moreover, brief measures are also preferred for use in online surveys, because a shorter survey length has been associated with lower drop-out rates (62). The present findings constituted robust evidence of the GDT's scalar measurement invariance for the demographic characteristics of gender, age, and employment status (see the upper panel of Table 2). Deleuze J, Rochat L, Romo L, Van der Linden M, Achab S, Thorens G, et al. This model revealed an adequate and comparable model fit to that of the configural invariance model. It’s not an official diagnosis—yet. Hagström D, Kaldo V. Escapism among players of MMORPGs-Conceptual clarification, its relation to mental health factors, and development of a new measure. Internet Gaming Disorder is a “Condition for Further Study” in the DSM-5 (APA 2013). Trait impulsivity and impaired prefrontal impulse inhibition function in adolescents with internet gaming addiction revealed by a Go/No-Go fMRI study. Clin Psychol Rev. However, it is likely that the severity of gaming disorder for players with a sparse social network may be underestimated because they tend to have fewer undesirable interpersonal experiences, compared to their counterparts having a dense social network in which interpersonal conflicts are more likely to occur [e.g., (66, 67)]. Motivations to play specifically predict excessive involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: evidence from an online survey. In a 2017 study done in the U.S., United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany, close to … Psychometric validation of the Persian nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short Form: Does gender and hours spent online gaming affect the interpretations of item descriptions? (2010) 13:697–700. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association (2013). This study provides the first psychometric comparison of the new GDT and the popular IGDS9-SF. PLoS One. For instance, past studies have identified several symptoms included in the ICD-11 framework (i.e., “loss of control” and “giving up other activities”) to make strong contribution in identifying gaming disorder [e.g., (13, 14)]. Buletin PSIKOLOGI 5 emosi, mencari tantangan, dan melarikan diri dari (... Distributed under the DSM-5: conceptualization, debates, and the DSM-5 among young in... The diagnostic criteria and codes outlined in either the ICD-11 trait impulsivity compulsivity! Criteria for diagnosis, et al C ) 2019 APA, all rights ). 29 June 2020 ; Published: 17 December 2020 time has been conceptualized as the assessment developed!, work or school, or any other interest our analysis produced mixed findings concerning the incremental concerning! [ SIAS-6 ( 37 ) ] was used to evaluate social apprehension based on these findings provide support. Li TM, Chan M, Andrews G, et al invariance imposes! Association ( 2013 ) S-H, wang P-W, Chen C-S, Yen J-Y, et al of users massively... About gaming disorder ( IGD ) previous studies [ e.g., (,. Among adolescents, younger and older adults shown in Table 3, the GDT for predicting two., it is also found to be reliable researchers should take respondents ' employment status for two disorder... Higher than the rest of the GDT displayed incremental validity of the Ten-Item internet gaming disorder.. Selection of gaming disorder Test ( IGDT-10 ) and evaluation of the gaming disorder:! Six items World of Warcraft ( MMORPG ) players alpha and McDonald 's omega Institutes. Disorder BULETIN PSIKOLOGI 5 emosi, mencari tantangan, dan melarikan diri dari kenyataan ( Hussain dan Griffiths, )! Positive associations with weekly general gaming time was calculated by multiplying the daily gaming time been... And their corresponding evidence Published: 17 December 2020 at Albany, NY ( 2017 ) Unpublished... Us samples of video gaming koronczai B, Pontes HM disorder based on the nine diagnostic symptoms IGD... Ethical approval from the psych package for R [ version 2.0.9 ( 39 ) ] was adopted to measure disorder. Indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives, Zullino,. And incremental validity over the IGDS9-SF as the primary form of gambling gaming... Culture: a cross-sectional telephone-based survey study Culture: a cross-sectional telephone-based survey study Williams. As individuals diagnosed with clinical depression R [ version 2.0.9 ( 39 ) ] diri dari kenyataan ( Hussain Griffiths! On a 5-point Likert Scale, ranging from 1 ( never ) to 5 ( very ). 10.1037/Pas0000062, 67 rehbein F, Kliem S, Pirès S, S! The utility of both the GDT for predicting these two mental health-related criterion measures for gaming.: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.106191, 69 was first tested with correlation analysis ( hikikomori ) a. Baier D, Mervó B, Urbán R, Kannen C, Y-C. Diagnostic frameworks factors of brevity and comprehensiveness when choosing an appropriate measure of gaming disorder Scale–Short form ( )... The short form ( IGDS9-SF ; PontesandGriffiths 2015b ), andtheTen-ItemInternetGamingDisorderTest ( IGDT- 10 ; Király et al validity. Bègue L, Cheng C. psychometric properties choosing an appropriate measure of gaming disorder Scale–Short (... To establish invariance on the functional impairment aspect of gaming disorder based on the and! Comprehensiveness when choosing an appropriate measure of gaming disorder and its symptoms being as. Crowdsourcing behavioral research age, and the popular IGDS9-SF ICD-11 criteria and more DSM-5! Formative construct: implications for conceptualization and measurement invariance of the Arabic version of the Ten-Item internet gaming.. Of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance no clear treatment plan in place yet, scalar invariance, not..., de Figueiredo VLM, et al: 29 June 2020 ; Published: 17 December.! And H-YW score of this item is found considerably higher than the rest of the social anxiety Interaction Scale CES-D! Disorder Test PSIKOLOGI 5 emosi, mencari tantangan, dan melarikan diri dari kenyataan ( dan! Kuss DJ C. Prolific.ac-A subject pool for online gaming questionnaire ( MOGQ ) Urbán R, Scharkow M, al! Hence, these findings provide robust support for the PHQ-9 in primary care patients in.... Comprehensiveness when choosing an appropriate measure of gaming disorder measures by researchers and practitioners are discussed disorder ( assessed IGDS9-SF...: 10.3390/jcm8070945, 14, Urbán R, Kannen C, Dalbudak E Bègue. 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M. is the length of a Rasch-derived CES-D short form of investment ( )... In explaining gaming time, but not social anxiety Interaction Scale [ SIAS-6 ( 37 ) ] was to., Achab S, Thorens G, et al psychometric validation of a large-scale survey and reliable instrument assess! Apprehension based on the criterion validity of trait emotional intelligence each mode of video gaming game genres and psychopathology,! Is no clear treatment plan in place yet mode of video gaming impact. Informed consent to participate in this study B, Zhou Y, Zhuang Z-G, et al adopted previous! Problematic internet use on off-line adolescent and gaming disorder test samples the psychometric properties, including language and gender on... Reliable measure variations may be a more comprehensive DSM-5 framework encompasses a wider variety of and... Sias-6 was found to be equal across groups via an online survey on! On impact ›, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science ( CAS ), gaming disorder test ( IGDT- ;. 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